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If another type of cymbal, for example a suspended cymbal , is required in an orchestral score, then for historical reasons this is often also indicated cymbals.
Some composers and arrangers use the plural cymbals or crash cymbals to indicate clash cymbals, with the singular cymbal to indicate a suspended cymbal.
Composers will often condense the clash cymbals and a suspended cymbal into the same part. There are a number of techniques used to indicate which is desired.
Whenever with stick or with mallet is written, a suspended cymbal is used. A return to clash cymbals can be specified with the Italian phrase a 2.
Designers of various sound banks distinguish between handheld and suspended cymbals by referring to the former as "Piatti cymbals", having already reserved the term "crash cymbal" for the latter.
Since " piatti " is the Italian term for "cymbal", this may be an awkward, redundant term. Clash cymbals are conventionally played by a standing percussionist.
In a marching band context, the stationary percussionist prepares for the crash by holding the cymbals parallel a few inches apart, with the surfaces vertical, one at waist height and the other some distance above it.
They are struck together by bringing the upper cymbal down and the lower up to meet in approximately the middle.
If only a single crash is to be played, the sounding cymbals are then raised in a follow-through and held vertical but no longer parallel, but instead in roughly the same plane with their concave surfaces facing the audience and head-high on either side of the percussionist.
This allows the cymbals to resonate freely. Alternatively, if another stroke is to follow, the cymbals are allowed to follow through only until they have reached the same heights as they started but now vertically reversed , and are then ready in position for the next stroke.
For softer strokes, in preparation the cymbals are held not quite vertically but at a slight angle, but still parallel, and the upper cymbal is then allowed to fall towards the lower.
The follow-through is reduced or even omitted after softer strokes. Because clash cymbals can be maneuvered like pom-poms or other handheld devices, cymbalists will often employ various feats of showmanship, such as spinning and flashing, striking cymbals between cymbalists, or creating visual designs.
Some of these serve a functional purpose—waving cymbals after a grand stroke allows for the clash to resonate more clearly; others are purely decorative—a cymbal line moving in quick pace during a field show can simulate airplanes or dragons.
Also, there are numerous techniques for playing cymbals, many very different from those listed above. In an orchestral or wind band context, the cymbals are typically held parallel a few inches apart at chest height.
For best crashes, the cymbals are held just off vertical, at a slight angle. For piano crashes the cymbals are brought together from centimetres apart and allowed to 'fizz' for a millisecond.
Whereas for forte crashes, using both arms in an upward sweeping motion as if you were rolling your arms and shoulders back and round to the front in circles , the cymbals are brought together with equal force from left and right hands.
Ideally, the percussionist would allow the edge furthest away from his or her body to make contact first, with the rest following milliseconds later.
They are rarely held almost horizontal, with the left cymbal on bottom. This is widely recognised as terrible technique and does not bring out anything from the cymbals other than a very weak 'crash' with no depth of sound or timbre.
Other common techniques are to choke the sounding cymbals by bringing them together and then damping one or both against the body. A skilled percussionist can produce elaborate rhythms, and with fine cymbals can exercise precise control over the loudness and decay and apparent duration of each crash.
Less skilled percussionists, children, and cartoon characters are often seen playing cymbals by beating them together with a purely horizontal motion.
This technique has even been used by some avant-garde composers, but generally produces poor control of the sound and risks damage to fine cymbals, which are not designed for such usage.
A drum kit normally contains one pair of clash cymbals mounted on a pedal-operated hi-hat stand. Cymbals have been utilized historically to suggest frenzy, fury or bacchanalian revels, as seen in the Venus music in Wagner's Tannhäuser , Grieg 's Peer Gynt suite , and Osmin's aria "O wie will ich triumphieren" from Mozart 's Die Entführung aus dem Serail.
Orchestral crash cymbals are traditionally used in pairs, each one having a strap set in the bell of the cymbal by which they are held.
Such a pair is always known as crash cymbals or plates. The sound can be obtained by rubbing their edges together in a sliding movement for a "sizzle", striking them against each other in what is called a "crash", tapping the edge of one against the body of the other in what is called a "tap-crash", scraping the edge of one from the inside of the bell to the edge for a "scrape" or "zischen," or shutting the cymbals together and choking the sound in what is called a "hi-hat chick" or crush.
A skilled percussionist can obtain an enormous dynamic range from such cymbals. For example, in Beethoven's ninth symphony , the percussionist is employed to first play cymbals pianissimo, adding a touch of colour rather than loud crash.
Crash cymbals are usually damped by pressing them against the percussionist's body. A composer may write laissez vibrer , "Let vibrate" usually abbreviated l.
Crash cymbals have traditionally been accompanied by the bass drum playing an identical part. This combination, played loudly, is an effective way to accentuate a note since it contributes to both very low and very high frequency ranges and provides a satisfying "crash-bang-wallop".
In older music the composer sometimes provided one part for this pair of instruments, writing senza piatti or piatti soli Italian : "without cymbals" or "cymbals only" if only one is needed.
This came from the common practice of having one percussionist play using one cymbal mounted to the shell of the bass drum. The percussionist would crash the cymbals with the left hand and use a mallet to strike the bass drum with the right.
This method is nowadays often employed in pit orchestras and called for specifically by composers who desire a certain effect.
Stravinsky calls for this in his ballet Petrushka , and Mahler calls for this in his Titan Symphony. The modern convention is for the instruments to have independent parts.
However, in kit drumming , a cymbal crash is still most often accompanied by a simultaneous kick to the bass drum , which provides a musical effect and support to the crash.
Crash cymbals evolved into the low-sock and from this to the modern hi-hat. Even in a modern drum kit, they remain paired with the bass drum as the two instruments which are played with the player's feet.
However, hi-hat cymbals tend to be heavy with little taper, more similar to a ride cymbal than to a clash cymbal as found in a drum kit, and perform a ride rather than a crash function.
Another use of cymbals is the suspended cymbal. This instrument takes its name from the traditional method of suspending the cymbal by means of a leather strap or rope, thus allowing the cymbal to vibrate as freely as possible for maximum musical effect.
Early jazz drumming pioneers borrowed this style of cymbal mounting during the early s and later drummers further developed this instrument into the mounted horizontal or nearly horizontally mounted "crash" cymbals of a modern drum kit , However, most modern drum kits do not employ a leather strap suspension system.
Many modern drum kits use a mount with felt or otherwise dampening fabric to act as a barrier to hold the cymbals between metal clamps: thus forming the modern day ride cymbal.
Suspended cymbals can be played with yarn-, sponge-, or cord wrapped mallets. The first known instance of using a sponge-headed mallet on a cymbal is the final chord of Hector Berlioz' Symphonie Fantastique.
Composers sometimes specifically request other types of mallets like felt mallets or timpani mallets for different attack and sustain qualities.
Suspended cymbals can produce bright and slicing tones when forcefully struck, and give an eerie transparent "windy" sound when played quietly.
A tremolo, or roll played with two mallets alternately striking on opposing sides of the cymbal can build in volume from almost inaudible to an overwhelming climax in a satisfyingly smooth manner as in Humperdink's Mother Goose Suite.
Other effects that can be used include drawing a bass bow across the edge of the cymbal for a sound like squealing car brakes.
Ancient, antique or tuned cymbals are much more rarely called for. Their timbre is entirely different, more like that of small hand-bells or of the notes of the keyed harmonica.
They are not struck full against each other, but by one of their edges, and the note given in by them is higher in proportion as they are thicker and smaller.
Berlioz's Romeo and Juliet calls for two pairs of cymbals, modelled on some old Pompeian instruments no larger than the hand some are no larger than a crown piece , and tuned to F and B flat.
The modern instruments descended from this line are the crotales. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the musical instrument.
For other uses, see Cymbal disambiguation. Percussion instrument. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Crash cymbal.
Main article: Hi-hat instrument. Main article: Suspended cymbal. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.